Masonic Lodges were founded in Georgia in the 19th century. They worked in Tbilisi, Kutaisi and Batumi. It was also planned to establish a Georgian Grand Lodge, but this was prevented by the Sovietisation of Georgia in 1921. After that, the Georgian Freemasons continued their work in exile, mainly in France.

In the Soviet Union they were persecuted so that, before the restoration of Georgia's independence in 1991, even the mention of the word "Freemason" was forbidden there.

The first modern Georgian Freemasons were founded in Armenia in the Grand Lodge of Armenia. The first God-fearing Masonic Lodge in Georgia was established on 7th May 2011. The Masonic Lodge "Golden Fleece" east of Tbilisi was founded by the Armenian Grand Lodge under Armenian jurisdiction.

In 2013 the Russian Grand Lodge inaugurated the Lodges "King David the Builder" and "St. Tamar the Queen" east of Tbilisi. Both worshipping Lodges worked under the auspices of the Russian Grand Lodge. In the same year, 2013, the Grand Lodge of Ukraine inaugurated the Lodge "St. George" east of Tbilisi, and the Grand Lodge of Turkey inaugurated the first Lodge in the Adjara region east of Batumi, the Lodge "Prometheus".

At that time there was no harmony between the Lodges of the different jurisdictions and they did not know each other; on the contrary, the relationship between them was tense. There was no unified plan for the development of Freemasonry in Georgia. The situation has been exacerbated by the fact that Russia is recognised under Georgian law as an occupying country that has annexed 20% of Georgia.

Nevertheless, Masonic Lodges developed in every jurisdiction. The Grand Lodge of Ukraine has established three more Masonic Lodges east of Tbilisi. On 14th March 2015, the Grand Lodge of Russia inaugurated another Lodge, “George the Magnificent” east of Tbilisi, and on 15th March, an inauguration ceremony of the Grand Lodge of Georgia took place, independent of other Masonic jurisdictions. In the same year, the Russian Grand Lodge inaugurated three more Lodges with Masonic dignity.

The Grand Lodges of Armenia, Turkey and Ukraine did not recognize the Grand Lodge of Georgia, the main reason for this being that the Grand Lodge of Russia was the only founder of the Lodge. Under Georgian law, Russia is recognised as an occupying State that annexed 20% of Georgian territory and continued to operate there.

On 28th May 2016 the Grand Lodge of Ukraine inaugurated the Regional Grand Lodge of Ukraine in Georgia.

Thus, in the autumn of 2016 the following Lodges were active in the territory of Georgia:

1. The Grand Lodge of Georgia, uniting six Lodges.

2. Under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Ukraine, the Regional Grand Lodge of Georgia, which included four Lodges.

3. Two Lodges working under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Armenia.

4. One Lodge working under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Turkey.

The different jurisdictions still did not recognise one another, so that there was no relationship or connection between their Lodges.

Due to the difficult situation of the Masonic movement in Georgia, on 28th October 2016, on the initiative of the Grand Master of the United Grand Lodges of Germany, a meeting of representatives of all Grand Lodges of Georgia - the Grand Lodge of Russia, the Grand Lodge of Armenia, the Grand Lodge of Ukraine and the Grand Lodge of Turkey - took place in Cologne.

The meeting was attended by representatives of the following regular Lodges:

1. The Grand Lodge of Austria.

2. The Grand Lodge of Poland.

3. The Grand Lodge of Spain.

4. The Grand Lodge of France.

The meeting took place in a rather tense and conflict-ridden situation but, as a result of the negotiations, the Grand Lodges operating in Georgia agreed to establish a single Grand Lodge in Georgia that would unite all the Lodges operating there. The new Grand Lodge would be recognised by all four jurisdictions operating in Georgia, namely, the Grand Lodges of Russia, Armenia, Ukraine and Turkey. The inauguration was scheduled for 2018.

Afterwards, in addition to the Lodges that were under the auspices of the Russian Grand Lodge (which were united under the name “Grand Lodge of Georgia”), relations between the Lodges of the other countries - Armenia, Ukraine and Turkey - were intensified. Worshipful Lodges held working meetings attended by Freemasons from the different countries. They worked together to strengthen and develop the work of Freemasons in Georgia.

Most of the Freemasons working in these Lodges strictly opposed unification with the Russian-led Freemasons, since the Russian side wanted to control the Masonic movement in Georgia.

Also in 2016, there occurred a split in the Russian-led Grand Lodge of Georgia. The Lodge was divided into two parts. Both new Grand Lodges retained and used the name "Grand Lodge of Georgia". One of them continued to work under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Russia, the other independently, but with unaudited, unconfirmed information. On the basis of their own statements, in 2017 they received a Patent from the Grand Lodge of France. Thus two "Grand Lodges of Georgia" continued to work in Georgia, one under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Russia and the other, according to themselves, under those of the Grand Lodge of France.

On 25th August 2018, the inauguration of the Grand Lodge of Georgia took place east of Tbilisi. The following Lodges attended the inauguration:

1. The Grand Lodge of Georgia (Russian wing), uniting six Lodges.

2. Under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Ukraine, the Regional Grand Lodge of Georgia, which included four Lodges.

3. Two Lodges under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Armenia.

4. One Lodge under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Turkey.

The inauguration was carried out by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Germany. The ceremony was attended by senior officers from Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Turkey, the Netherlands and Poland. The inauguration took place in a rather tense situation. The Russian side did not agree with the candidates proposed by other jurisdictions for the Grand Officers of Georgia. For a while, the representatives of the Russian Grand Lodges and the members of the Georgian Grand Lodge (Russian wing) left the meeting in protest.

The fact that the majority of the members of the Grand Lodge of Georgia were Masonic brothers who were Russian citizens and belonged to the Grand Lodge of Russia also sparked controversy. The inauguration ceremony was on the verge of failure, but the representatives of the Grand Lodge of Russia were able to push through their plan and the United Grand Lodge of Georgia was established, and was supported by the Grand Lodges of Armenia, Ukraine, Russia and Turkey.

It is noteworthy that members of the Grand Lodge of Turkey also left the assembly, only some of whom later returned to the initiation ritual.

In autumn 2018, German liberal Lodges brought the Light to Georgia and the first Georgian liberal Lodge "Peter the Iberian" was founded.

Shortly after its foundation, an unhealthy environment arose in the United Grand Lodge of Georgia. Harmony was disturbed and the works were held in a harsh and tense environment. The "Russian wing" was active and brought disagreements to the work of the Lodges. For this reason the five members of the Lodge, three of whom were former Worshipful Masters, left the Grand Lodge and joined the liberal Lodge Peter the Iberian, which was a member of one of the liberal Grand Jurisdictions of the German jurisdiction. Later they were joined by brothers from the Lodge of the Great East of France and one of the Grand Lodges of America; of these, seven Masonic brothers founded the Lodge "Armazi".

On 2nd October 2021, two worshipful German Lodges and the worshipful Lodges Peter the Iberian and Armazi founded the Grand Lodge "LIBERTAS" of the international liberal jurisdiction in the German city of Augsburg.

And so today, three Masonic jurisdictions are active in Georgia:

1. The independent International Grand Lodge LIBERTAS for women and men, to which belong the two Lodges Peter the Iberian and Armazi both working east of Tbilisi.

2. The United Grand Lodge of Georgia, representing regular Freemasonry and which, according to its own statements, includes thirteen Lodges.

3. The Grand Lodge of Georgia, operating under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of France, to which seven Lodges belong.

There are no official relations between the three Masonic jurisdictions, nor do they have a unified plan for the development of Freemasonry in Georgia. Relations between them are limited to the level of personal relations among the brothers.


Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, Humanity and Tolerance are the cornerstones of Freemasonry. All people are equal and must not be discriminated against on the basis of ethnic origin, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, social status, property or rank, place of residence or other characteristics. One of the greatest achievements of the modern civilized world is the equality of women and men. Unfortunately, these principles are ignored in the so-called "regular Freemasonry". For this reason, in 2016, five Georgian master brothers left "regular Freemasonry” on the basis of a joint resolution and decided to found the first mixedliberal Lodge "Peter the Iberian" in Georgia, in the Orient Tbilisi. In 2018 a German liberal Grand Lodge brought the Light to the Lodge “Peter the Iberian”. 

Georgia - the land of the Golden Fleece - is a multinational country with the best traditions of friendly coexistence of nationalities and a centuries-old history of religious tolerance. Here you will find Georgian Orthodox, Armenian-Gregorian and Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue, a mosque and a Zoroastrian temple, all within a 5-minute walk of each other.

For the brothers and sisters of our Lodge, international relations with liberal obediences have always been very important, since Freemasonry itself is an international association. The "International Masonic Grand Lodge for Women and Men LIBERTAS" is an excellent association based on true Masonic principles, and by joining this jurisdiction, the Lodge “Peter the Iberian" was given the opportunity to build the Temple of Humanity together with other brothers and sisters from different countries.

It's also a great way to build liberal Freemasonry in a country like Georgia.



Johann Gottfried Herder

Lohann Gottfried Herder was born on August 25, 1744, in Mohrungen, a town of barely 200 inhabitants, where he enjoyed a pious, pietistic upbringing. It was a time of many confusions and wars (e.g. the Second Silesian War).

After his schooling, which took place in the best Prussian manner, he studied, among other things, theology in Königsberg from 1762. Another and probably the most significant friend of Herder from the Königsberg period was Johann Georg Hamann. The influence of his philosophical views is especially (by no means exclusively!) evident in Herder's late years during his disputes with Kant and in his philosophy of language. Herder also learned the English language from Hamann and was introduced to Shakespeare's works through him. A preacher in Riga, in 1764 he took a position as teacher and preacher at the Riga Cathedral School. Through his acquaintance with the merchant Johann Zuckerbecker, who had been Master of the chair of the lodge "Zum Nordstern" (later "Zum Schwert") since 1760, Herder came into contact with Freemasonry. Here he also became a Freemason.

In June 1766, he was admitted to the Riga lodge "Zum Schwert". Furthermore, he was later a member of an Illuminati lodge, a Masonic-like association, which, however, actively sought the transformation of state and church in the sense of the Enlightenment ideal of humanity and through direct influence. For this reason, the Illuminati split off from the Freemasons.

Despite his extremely passive membership, Herder was able to leave a lasting mark on the spirit of the brotherhood. During his Weimar period, for example, he had an impact by collaborating in Schröder's reform of the Masonic rituals, which included abolishing the secret superiors of the Strict Observance doctrine, which in reality consisted exclusively of the person of Gotthelf Freiherr von Hundt, and ordering various ceremonial details. Much greater, even unspeakably greater influence on today's Freemasonry exercised the philosophy of humanity of his texts.

Friedrich Ludwig Schröder and Johann Gottfried Herder hardly met in person, probably only once in 1799 and another time in 1801. During this time, however, a very extensive correspondence took place. The conditions of his small community in Riga, however, did not fit Herder's ideas of his effectiveness and his desired sphere (cf. Letter to Kant, November 1768). Therefore, he began to travel.

In 1771, probably the most groundbreaking encounter in German literature took place. Herder met the young Goethe in Strasbourg, formally became his teacher, and inspired him to write "Poetry of the Human Soul." It is therefore not surprising that Goethe's "Faust" has many traits of the young Herder. "Göthe is really a good man, only extremely light and much too light, and sparrow-like, for which he has had my eternal reproaches." (Herder, March 21, 1772.)

Towards the end of his life, his interest in Freemasonry reawakened - especially through his collaboration in the ritual reform; he eagerly read all the writings he could get that dealt with the history of Freemasonry.


Garlieb Helwig Merkel


Garlieb Helwig Merkel was a German-Baltic writer and publicist from 1769 to 1850, one of the brightest representatives of the Enlightenment ideas in the Baltics. He played a prominent role in the abolition of sex in the Baltics. He spent his youth in Riga, where he met the actor, writer and Freemason Karl Ferdinand Daniel Groman. After Merkel completed the manuscript of his book, The Latvians at the End of the Philosophical Century, he went to Leipzig, where he arranged with the publisher Heinrich Grōff to print the book and began his medical studies at the university. His friends included J. G. Herder, K. M. Wieland, and others, including F. Schiller and J.W. Goethe.

In 1799 Merkel moved to Berlin, where he was admitted to a Masonic lodge on March 8, which expanded his publicity in Prussian liberal and patriotic circles. In 1801, he earned a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Frankfurt am Oder and became a well-known journalist and critic.


Wilhelm Ostwald


 Wilhelm Ostwald was a German-Baltic chemist and philosopher. He is the only Nobel Prize winner (1909) born and working in Latvia, who received it for catalysis research and for the study of fundamental principles of chemical equilibrium and the rate of chemical reactions.In 1881 Ostvalds returned to Riga and worked as a professor of chemistry at the Riga Polytechnic (1881-1887). He produced new measuring instruments for chemical experiments - thermostat, rheostat and viscometer.

At the University of Leipzig he had a conflict with conservative professors at the Faculty of Philosophy. Having returned from the United States in 1906, Ostwald emerges prematurely at the age of 53 and devoted the rest of his life to his hobbies and to developing natural philosophical views. In 1909, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1911 Ostwald was admitted to the Leipzig Masonic Lodge "Zu den drei Ringen" and later became Deputy

Grand Master of Zur aufgehenden Sonne and from 1914 Honorary Grand Master.




In 2007 the French Women's Grand Lodge (Grande Loge feminine de France) founded the Women's Lodge "Magic Flute" in Riga, and on2011 later the Grand Orient of Women from Spain founded its Women's Lodge "Rīta Zvaigzne" (Morning Star) in Riga. I also participated in the creation of this lodge, so I have personal memories of it.

In 2006 I was initiated by some already accepted sisters and brothers of the men's lodge "Stella Baltica" formed adoption lodge. In this way, several candidates were initiated while we were able to work independently and search for a women's Grand Lodge in Europe that could shine the light for us. We knew that another women's lodge was set up in parallel, but for various reasons no contacts were made.

Finally, in 2011, the light was solemnly illuminated by the Grand Orient of Spanish Women for our Lodge "Morning Star".

In 2009, the Polish Grand Orient (Lodge WWP), in cooperation with the French Grand Orient, established the Riga Lodge "Moria", which in 2015 joined the Union of 15 European Lodges. 

The ancient and original Memphis-Misraim Rite founded the lodge "Maat" in the east of Riga.

In 2015, the Riga lodge "Aurora Balticum" was consecrated. In December 2018, the triangle Memphis-Misraima Rite "Akhet" No. 132 began to operate in the East of Riga in Latvia. Both Memphis- Misraim Rite lodges are members of the Grand Lodge Le Droit Humain in Russia.

Inara Gaumiga (Rigas Delta i. Riga/Latvia)